Antivirals for Pandemic Influenza: Implementation of Antiviral Medication Strategies for an Influenza PandemicPlanning for an influenza pandemic, whether it occurs in the near or distant future, will need to take into account many constantly evolving factors. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Implementation of Antiviral Medication Strategies for an Influenza Pandemic was asked by the Department of Health and Human Services, (DHHS) to consider best practices and policies for providing antiviral treatment and prophylaxis during a pandemic event. The committee (TM)s report, entitled Antivirals for Pandemic Influenza: Guidance on Developing a Distribution and Dispensing Program, calls for a national and public process of creating an ethical framework for antiviral use within the context of uncertainty and scarcity. It is unclear whether antivirals will work against a pandemic strain as well as they work against seasonal influenza. Also, government stockpiles may not be sufficient for all possible uses in part because antivirals are costly and public health agencies must invest in other important activities, including other medical resources for pandemic influenza. Furthermore, the report identifies the lack of a science-based advisory body to guide decision making during the pandemic, including guidance on all dimensions of antiviral dispensing (for example, prioritization, drug safety, and antiviral resistance). The report also acknowledges the need for diverse methods and sites of dispensing, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages.
Contagion and Chaos : Disease, Ecology, and National Security in the Era of GlobalizationChoice Outstanding Academic Title, 2009. Historians from Thucydides to William McNeill have pointed to the connections between disease and civil society. Political scientists have investigated the relationship of public health to governance, introducing the concept of health security. In Contagion and Chaos,Andrew Price-Smith offers the most comprehensive examination yet of disease through the lens of national security. Extending the analysis presented in his earlier book The Health of Nations,Price-Smith argues that epidemic disease represents a direct threat to the power of a state, eroding prosperity and destabilizing both its internal politics and its relationships with other states. He contends that the danger of an infectious pathogen to national security depends on lethality, transmissability, fear, and economic damage. Moreover, warfare and ecological change contribute to the spread of disease and act as "disease amplifiers." Price-Smith presents a series of case studies to illustrate his argument: the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19 (about which he advances the controversial claim that the epidemic contributed to the defeat of Germany and Austria); HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (he contrasts the worst-case scenario of Zimbabwe with the more stable Botswana); bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as Mad Cow Disease); and the SARS contagion of 2002-03. Emerging infectious disease continues to present a threat to national and international security, Price-Smith argues, and globalization and ecological change only accelerate the danger.
Coronavirus: a guide to understanding the virus and what is known so far by The Centers for Disease ControlThe novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 is now officially a global pandemic with over 130,000 confirmed cases and over 5,000 deaths. Its path is exponential, and panic is being felt around the globe. But the most important thing you can do to combat the virus is to understand how it works, how it spreads, and to STAY INFORMED. What Does This Coronavirus Outbreak Guide Contain? In-depth history of the virus since its inception Scientific explanation of what coronavirus is and how it works Actionable advice on how to stop the novel coronavirus from spreading Specific tips for employers, employers, and those who must travel during the outbreak Updated statistics on symptoms, treatment, and global survival rates. This 2019-2020 Coronavirus Outbreak Guide is from the CDC Website. Learn the truth about how this virus works. And whatever you do, don't forget to wash your hands.
Introduction to Pandemic InfluenzaPandemic influenza is an example of an emerging pathogen that could have, and has had, serious public health consequences. Following three global pandemics in the last 100 years and the recent avian and swine influenza outbreaks, preparedness on national and international scales is of vital importance. With a strong emphasis on practical preparedness issues, and covering areas not dealt with by traditional texts, this book covers influenza epidemiology, vaccinology, virology and immunology, pharmaceutical and public health countermeasures, policy issues, biomathematical modeling, ethics and communication between health professionals and the public, promoting the better understanding of influenza that will be needed to battle future pandemics. Each chapter raises five key questions at the beginning and proceeds to answer them in clear and concise sections, also providing selected papers for further reading and detailing relevant modelling studies. It is an essential text students in virology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, public health and medical sciences, and for all those involved in pandemic preparedness.
The next pandemic : on the front lines against humankind's gravest dangersAn inside account of the fight to contain the world's deadliest diseases--and the panic and corruption that make them worse Throughout history, humankind's biggest killers have been infectious diseases: the Black Death, the Spanish Flu, and AIDS alone account for over one hundred million deaths. We ignore this reality most of the time, but when a new threat--Ebola, SARS, Zika--seems imminent, we send our best and bravest doctors to contain it. People like Dr. Ali S. Khan. In his long career as a public health first responder--protected by a thin mask from infected patients, napping under nets to keep out scorpions, making life-and-death decisions on limited, suspect information--Khan has found that rogue microbes will always be a problem, but outbreaks are often caused by people. We make mistakes, politicize emergencies, and, too often, fail to imagine the consequences of our actions. The Next Pandemic is a firsthand account of disasters like anthrax, bird flu, and others--and how we could do more to prevent their return. It is both a gripping story of our brushes with fate and an urgent lesson on how we can keep ourselves safe from the inevitable next pandemic.
Preparing for an Influenza PandemicDuring an influenza pandemic, healthcare workers will be on the front lines delivering care to patients and preventing further spread of the disease. As the nation prepares for pandemic influenza, multiple avenues for protecting the health of the public are being carefully considered, ranging from rapid development of appropriate vaccines to quarantine plans should the need arise for their implementation. One vital aspect of pandemic influenza planning is the use of personal protective equipment (PPE)-the respirators, gowns, gloves, face shields, eye protection, and other equipment that will be used by healthcare workers and others in their day-to-day patient care responsibilities. However, efforts to appropriately protect healthcare workers from illness or from infecting their families and their patients are greatly hindered by the paucity of data on the transmission of influenza and the challenges associated with training and equipping healthcare workers with effective personal protective equipment. Due to this lack of knowledge on influenza transmission, it is not possible at the present time to definitively inform healthcare workers about what PPE is critical and what level of protection this equipment will provide in a pandemic. The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 have underscored the importance of protecting healthcare workers from infectious agents. The surge capacity that will be required to reduce mortality from a pandemic cannot be met if healthcare workers are themselves ill or are absent due to concerns about PPE efficacy. The IOM committee determined that there is an urgent need to address the lack of preparedness regarding effective PPE for use in an influenza pandemic. Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic: Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers identifies that require expeditious research and policy action: (1) Influenza transmission research should become an immediate and short-term research priority so that effective prevention and control strategies can be developed and refined. The current paucity of knowledge significantly hinders prevention efforts. (2) Employer and employee commitment to worker safety and appropriate use of PPE should be strengthened. Healthcare facilities should establish and promote a culture of safety. (3) An integrated effort is needed to understand the PPE requirements of the worker and to develop and utilize innovative materials and technologies to create the next generation of PPE capable of meeting these needs.
Preventing Transmission of Pandemic Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory DiseasesIn 2009, the H1N1 influenza pandemic brought to the forefront the many unknowns about the virulence, spread, and nature of the virus, as well as questions regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare personnel. In this book, the Institute of Medicine assesses the progress of PPE research and identifies future directions for PPE for healthcare personnel.
Reusability of Facemasks During an Influenza PandemicAny strategy to cope with an influenza pandemic must be based on the knowledge and tools that are available at the time an epidemic may occur. In the near term, when we lack an adequate supply of vaccine and antiviral medication, strategies that rely on social distancing and physical barriers will be relatively more prominent as means to prevent spread of disease. The use of respirators and facemasks is one key part of a larger strategy to establish barriers and increase distance between infected and uninfected individuals. Respirators and facemasks may have a role in both clinical care and community settings. Reusability of Facemasks During an Influenza Pandemic: Facing the Flu answers a specific question about the role of respirators and facemasks to reduce the spread of flu: Can respirators and facemasks that are designed to be disposable be reused safely and effectively? The committee-assisted by outstanding staff-worked intensively to review the pertinent literature; consult with manufacturers, researchers, and medical specialists; and apply their expert judgment. This report offers findings and recommendations based on the evidence, pointing to actions that are appropriate now and to lines of research that can better inform future decisions.
Textbook of InfluenzaThe Textbook of Influenza is a comprehensive resourcecovering all aspects of influenza, from the genetic and molecularbiology of the virus through to clinical aspects of the disease andthe latest drug developments and treatments. This new edition hasbeen completely revised and reflects the integration of disciplinesconcerning the emergence, evolution, pathogenesis and control ofinfluenza viruses in the field of human and veterinary publichealth. Textbook of Influenza examines the lessons learnt fromthe latest pandemic and provides the current state of knowledge formany yet unresolved issues related to virus origin, spread,pathogenesis and disease severity to better prepare for futurepandemics. It covers the background to recent advances in influenzagenomics and reverse genetics which have allowed the identificationof virus virulence factors and the analysis and reconstruction ofinfluenza viruses such as the 1918 Spanish flu strain. This new edition is divided into eight key sections, containingchapters co-written by international experts from both the clinicaland scientific communities, covering: ? Influenza Perspectives ? Structure and Replication ? Evolution and Ecology ? Epidemiology and Surveillance ? Immunology ? Vaccines and Vaccine Development ? Clinical Aspects and Antivirals ? Public Health Textbook of Influenza is for all those working in thearea of influenza including clinical and basic scientists,immunologists, molecular and structural virologists, public healthofficials and global pandemic control planners.
TIME: The Science of Epidemics: What we have learned by TIME MagazineAs the coronavirus make its global impact, TIME The Science of Epidemics brings deeper understanding of the virus, the pressing issues around it, as well as what we have learned from the many epidemics and pandemics that humans have confronted over time. TIME's deep and behind-the scenes reporting explores the science behind COVID-19, the path of vaccine development, from work in labs to virus hunters in the field, as well as the potential longer-term social and economic impacts. Learn how we have treated, and curtailed, epidemics such as Polio, Spanish flu, SARS and others, and understand how what we learned then can be so valuable today. Driven by compelling, science-backed narratives, TIME The Science of Epidemics illuminates what medical researchers and doctors in the field are doing to save millions of lives from epidemics.
The Viral Network : A Pathography of the H1N1 Influenza PandemicIn The Viral Network, Theresa MacPhail examines our collective fascination with and fear of viruses through the lens of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. In April 2009, a novel strain of H1N1 influenza virus resulting from a combination of bird, swine, and human flu viruses emerged in Veracruz, Mexico. The Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) announced an official end to the pandemic in August 2010. Experts agree that the global death toll reached 284,500. The public health response to the pandemic was complicated by the simultaneous economic crisis and by the public scrutiny of official response in an atmosphere of widespread connectivity. MacPhail follows the H1N1 influenza virus's trajectory through time and space in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of what happens when global public health comes down with a case of the flu. The Viral Network affords a rare look inside the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, as well as Hong Kong's virology labs and Centre for Health Protection, during a pandemic. MacPhail looks at the day-to-day practices of virologists and epidemiologists to ask questions about the production of scientific knowledge, the construction of expertise, disease narratives, and the different "cultures" of public health in the United States, Europe, Hong Kong, and China. The chapters of the book move from the micro to the macro, from Hong Kong to Atlanta, from the lab to the WHO, from the pandemic past in 1918 to the future. The various historical, scientific, and cultural narratives about flu recounted in this book show how biological genes and cultural memes become interwoven in the stories we tell during a pandemic. Ultimately, MacPhail argues that the institution of global public health is as viral as the viruses it tracks, studies, and helps to contain or eradicate. The "global" is itself viral in nature.
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