American Poverty in a New Era of ReformThis new edition of American Poverty in a New Era of Reform provides a comprehensive examination of the extent, causes, effects, and costs of American poverty nearly ten years after the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in 1996. The author includes the most current available demographic, budget, evaluation, and program data to evaluate the impact of this sweeping legislation on federal and state policies, as well as on poverty populations. This revised edition takes into account the economic slowdown that took place in 2001 through 2003. It examines the state decisions about how to implement PRWORA, and how changes have affected the poverty population and overall welfare system. The author identifies the positive implications of welfare reform along with problems that must be addressed. New features for this edition include an appendix of Internet sources a state-by-state tables of poverty rates.
The American way of poverty : how the other half still livesSelected as A Notable Book of the Year by The New York Times Book Review Fifty years after Michael Harrington published his groundbreaking bookThe Other America, in which he chronicled the lives of people excluded from the Age of Affluence, poverty in America is back with a vengeance. It is made up of both the long-term chronically poor and new working poor--the tens of millions of victims of a broken economy and an ever more dysfunctional political system. In many ways, for the majority of Americans, financial insecurity has become the new norm. The American Way of Poverty shines a light on this travesty. Sasha Abramsky brings the effects of economic inequality out of the shadows and, ultimately, suggests ways for moving toward a fairer and more equitable social contract. Exploring everything from housing policy to wage protections and affordable higher education, Abramsky lays out a panoramic blueprint for a reinvigorated political process that, in turn, will pave the way for a renewed War on Poverty. It is, Harrington believed, a moral outrage that in a country as wealthy as America, so many people could be so poor. Written in the wake of the 2008 financial collapse, in an era of grotesque economic extremes,The American Way of Poverty brings that same powerful indignation to the topic.
The Bottom Billion : Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About ItGlobal poverty, Paul Collier points out, is actually falling quite rapidly for about eighty percent of the world. The real crisis lies in a group of about 50 failing states, the bottom billion, whose problems defy traditional approaches to alleviating poverty. In The Bottom Billion, Collier contends that these fifty failed states pose the central challenge of the developing world in the twenty-first century. The book shines a much needed light on this group of small nations, largely unnoticed by the industrialized West, that are dropping further andfurther behind the majority of the world's people, often falling into an absolute decline in living standards. A struggle rages within each of these nation between reformers and corrupt leaders--and the corrupt are winning. Collier analyzes the causes of failure, pointing to a set of traps thatsnare these countries, including civil war, a dependence on the extraction and export of natural resources, and bad governance. Standard solutions do not work against these traps, he writes; aid is often ineffective, and globalization can actually make matters worse, driving development to morestable nations. What the bottom billion need, Collier argues, is a bold new plan supported by the Group of Eight industrialized nations. If failed states are ever to be helped, the G8 will have to adopt preferential trade policies, new laws against corruption, and new international charters, andeven conduct carefully calibrated military interventions. As former director of research for the World Bank and current Director of the Center for the Study of African Economies at Oxford University, Paul Collier has spent a lifetime working to end global poverty. In The Bottom Billion, he offers real hope for solving one of the great humanitarian crisesfacing the world today.
Cultivating Food Justice : Race, Class, and SustainabilityDocuments how racial and social inequalities are built into our food system, and how communities are creating environmentally sustainable and socially just alternatives. Popularized by such best-selling authors as Michael Pollan, Barbara Kingsolver, and Eric Schlosser, a growing food movement urges us to support sustainable agriculture by eating fresh food produced on local family farms. But many low-income neighborhoods and communities of color have been systematically deprived of access to healthy and sustainable food. These communities have been actively prevented from producing their own food and often live in "food deserts" where fast food is more common than fresh food. Cultivating Food Justice describes their efforts to envision and create environmentally sustainable and socially just alternatives to the food system. Bringing together insights from studies of environmental justice, sustainable agriculture, critical race theory, and food studies, Cultivating Food Justice highlights the ways race and class inequalities permeate the food system, from production to distribution to consumption. The studies offered in the book explore a range of important issues, including agricultural and land use policies that systematically disadvantage Native American, African American, Latino/a, and Asian American farmers and farmworkers; access problems in both urban and rural areas; efforts to create sustainable local food systems in low-income communities of color; and future directions for the food justice movement. These diverse accounts of the relationships among food, environmentalism, justice, race, and identity will help guide efforts to achieve a just and sustainable agriculture.
Evicted : poverty and profit in the American cityNew York Times Bestseller From Harvard sociologist and MacArthur "Genius" Matthew Desmond, a landmark work of scholarship and reportage that will forever change the way we look at poverty in America In this brilliant, heartbreaking book, Matthew Desmond takes us into the poorest neighborhoods of Milwaukee to tell the story of eight families on the edge. Arleen is a single mother trying to raise her two sons on the $20 a month she has left after paying for their rundown apartment. Scott is a gentle nurse consumed by a heroin addiction. Lamar, a man with no legs and a neighborhood full of boys to look after, tries to work his way out of debt. Vanetta participates in a botched stickup after her hours are cut. All are spending almost everything they have on rent, and all have fallen behind. The fates of these families are in the hands of two landlords: Sherrena Tarver, a former schoolteacher turned inner-city entrepreneur, and Tobin Charney, who runs one of the worst trailer parks in Milwaukee. They loathe some of their tenants and are fond of others, but as Sherrena puts it, "Love don't pay the bills." She moves to evict Arleen and her boys a few days before Christmas. Even in the most desolate areas of American cities, evictions used to be rare. But today, most poor renting families are spending more than half of their income on housing, and eviction has become ordinary, especially for single mothers. In vivid, intimate prose, Desmond provides a ground-level view of one of the most urgent issues facing America today. As we see families forced into shelters, squalid apartments, or more dangerous neighborhoods, we bear witness to the human cost of America's vast inequality--and to people's determination and intelligence in the face of hardship. Based on years of embedded fieldwork and painstakingly gathered data, this masterful book transforms our understanding of extreme poverty and economic exploitation while providing fresh ideas for solving a devastating, uniquely American problem. Its unforgettable scenes of hope and loss remind us of the centrality of home, without which nothing else is possible.
Heartland : a memoir of working hard and being broke in the richest country on Earth*Finalist for the National Book Award and the Kirkus Prize* *Instant New York Times Bestseller* *Named a Best Book of 2018 by NPR* An essential read for our times: an eye-opening memoir of working-class poverty in America that will deepen our understanding of the ways in which class shapes our country. Sarah Smarsh was born a fifth generation Kansas wheat farmer on her paternal side, and the product of generations of teen mothers on her maternal side. Through her experiences growing up on a farm thirty miles west of Wichita, we are given a unique and essential look into the lives of poor and working class Americans living in the heartland. During Sarah's turbulent childhood in Kansas in the 1980s and 1990s, she enjoyed the freedom of a country childhood, but observed the painful challenges of the poverty around her; untreated medical conditions for lack of insurance or consistent care, unsafe job conditions, abusive relationships, and limited resources and information that would provide for the upward mobility that is the American Dream. By telling the story of her life and the lives of the people she loves with clarity and precision but without judgement, Smarsh challenges us to look more closely at the class divide in our country. A beautifully written memoir that combines personal narrative with powerful analysis and cultural commentary, Heartland examines the myths about people thought to be less because they earn less. "A deeply humane memoir that crackles with clarifying insight, Heartland is one of a growing number of important works--including Matthew Desmond's Evicted and Amy Goldstein's Janesville--that together merit their own section in nonfiction aisles across the country: America's postindustrial decline...Smarsh shows how the false promise of the 'American dream' was used to subjugate the poor. It's a powerful mantra" (The New York Times Book Review).
HungerJames Vernon draws together social, cultural and political history to show readers how we came to have a moral, political and social responsibility toward hunger.
Hunger : The Biology and Politics of StarvationThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948, recognizes the individual's right "to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing, and medical care." More than sixty years later, despite the rapid advancement of science and technology and the proliferation of humanitarian efforts, inadequate nutrition remains a major health and social problem worldwide. Food insecurity--chronic malnutrition, persistent hunger, even starvation--still afflicts more than one in seven of the world's people. As Butterly and Shepherd show, hunger is not the result of inadequate resources and technologies; rather, its cause is a lack of political will to ensure that all people have access to the food to which they are entitled--food distributed safely, fairly, and equitably. Using a cross-disciplinary approach rooted in both medicine and social science to address this crucial issue, the authors provide in-depth coverage of the biology of human nutrition; malnutrition and associated health-related factors; political theories of inadequate nutrition and famine; historical-political behaviors that have led to famine in the past; and the current political behaviors that cause hunger and malnutrition to remain a major health problem today.
Not a crime to be poor : the criminalization of poverty in AmericaAs former staffer to Robert F. Kennedy and current Georgetown law professor Peter Edelman explains in Not a Crime to Be Poor, Ferguson is everywhere in America today. Through money bail systems, fees and fines, strictly enforced laws and regulations against behaviour including trespassing and public urination that largely affect the homeless, and the substitution of prisons and jails for the mental hospitals that have traditionally served the impoverished, in one of the richest countries on Earth we have effectively made it a crime to be poor.
Poverty, Inequality, and EvaluationThe basic premise of this book is that the conversation on the future of development needs to shift from a focus on poverty to that of inequality. The poverty emphasis is in an intellectual and political cul de sac. It does not address the fundamental question of why people are poor nor what can be done structurally and institutionally to reduce and eliminate it. The various chapters illustrate in the context of various countries and sectors around the world, the significant contributions that evaluators can make in terms of improvement of the analytical framework, analysis of the performance and results of specific programs and projects, as well as assessing and designing better public management systems in terms of poverty and inequality reduction. Beyond the specific contributions presented, three characteristics characterize those evaluations to be relevant for poverty and inequality analysis: a global-local approach: Global to move beyond disciplinary boundaries and consider cross-cutting issues, local to account for the diversity of countries, sectors, institutions and cultures considered; a problem-solving orientation: The issue evaluated is the core focus and determines the choice of evaluation methods to analyze this issue from a variety of angles; an evolutionary approach: Chapters presented are from iconoclasts who do not have any pre-established theory or school of thought to defend. This is the result of openness of mind and ability to adapt the analytical framework, the evaluation methods, and the interpretation of results in a constant interaction with the stakeholders. Such characteristics make evaluation a domain that can help understand better complex issues like poverty, inequality, vulnerability, and their interactions as well as propose a relevant and useful theory of change for public policies and projects to improve the plight of a large part of the world population in industrialized and developing countries alike.
Poverty and the Poor in the World's Religious Traditions: Religious Responses to the Problem of PovertyThis detailed book is a resource for students, practitioners, and leaders interested in how the major world religions have understood poverty and responded to the poor. * Addresses a topic of great importance: the intersection of religion, a universal cultural phenomenon; and the poor, a population whose demographics are on the rise globally * Fills the need for an accurate, authoritative resource on the way poverty and the poor are understood in the world's religions * Coedited by a published specialist in world religions and a recognized specialist, academic, and practitioner in international responses to poverty and emergency response in a variety of cultures
Rural Poverty in the United StatesAmerica's rural areas have always held a disproportionate share of the nation's poorest populations. Rural Poverty in the United States examines why. What is it about the geography, demography, and history of rural communities that keeps them poor? In a comprehensive analysis that extends from the Civil War to the present, Rural Poverty in the United States looks at access to human and social capital; food security; healthcare and the environment; homelessness; gender roles and relations; racial inequalities; and immigration trends to isolate the underlying causes of persistent rural poverty. Contributors to this volume incorporate approaches from multiple disciplines, including sociology, economics, demography, race and gender studies, public health, education, criminal justice, social welfare, and other social science fields. They take a hard look at current and past programs to alleviate rural poverty and use their failures to suggest alternatives that could improve the well-being of rural Americans for years to come. These essays work hard to define rural poverty's specific metrics and markers, a critical step for building better policy and practice. Considering gender, race, and immigration, the book appreciates the overlooked structural and institutional dimensions of ongoing rural poverty and its larger social consequences.
Shelter Blues : Sanity and Selfhood among the HomelessDesjarlais shows us not anonymous faces of the homeless but real people. While it is estimated that 25 percent or more of America's homeless are mentally ill, their lives are largely unknown to us. What must life be like for those who, in addition to living on the street, hear voices, suffer paranoid delusions, or have trouble thinking clearly or talking to others. Shelter Blues is an innovative portrait of people residing in Boston's Station Street Shelter. It examines the everyday lives of more than 40 homeless men and women, both white and African-American, ranging in age from early 20s to mid-60s. Based on a sixteen-month study, it draws readers into the personal worlds of these individuals and, by addressing the intimacies of homelessness, illness, and abjection, picks up where most scholarship and journalism stops. Robert Desjarlais works against the grain of media representations of homelessness by showing us not anonymous stereotypes but individuals. He draws on conversations as well as observations, talking with and listening to shelter residents to understand how they relate to their environment, to one another, and to those entrusted with their care. His book considers their lives in terms of a complex range of forces and helps us comprehend the linkages between culture, illness, personhood, and political agency on the margins of contemporary American society. Shelter Blues is unlike anything else ever written about homelessness. It challenges social scientists and mental health professionals to rethink their approaches to human subjectivity and helps us all to better understand one of the most pressing problems of our time.
Someplace Like America : Tales from the New Great DepressionIn Someplace Like America, writer Dale Maharidge and photographer Michael S. Williamson take us to the working-class heart of America, bringing to life--through shoe leather reporting, memoir, vivid stories, stunning photographs, and thoughtful analysis--the deepening crises of poverty and homelessness. The story begins in 1980, when the authors joined forces to cover the America being ignored by the mainstream media--people living on the margins and losing their jobs as a result of deindustrialization. Since then, Maharidge and Williamson have traveled more than half a million miles to investigate the state of the working class (winning a Pulitzer Prize in the process). In Someplace Like America, they follow the lives of several families over the thirty-year span to present an intimate and devastating portrait of workers going jobless. This brilliant and essential study--begun in the trickle-down Reagan years and culminating with the recent banking catastrophe--puts a human face on today's grim economic numbers. It also illuminates the courage and resolve with which the next generation faces the future.
Women and Poverty in 21st Century AmericaDespite an overhaul in the 1990s, the American welfare system remains with a business model focused on the bottom line. Crafted by male-dominated legislative bodies whose members most likely never had to choose between paying the rent or feeding their kids, established policies primarily protect the popular programs that ensure politicians' re-election. This book offers a feminist perspective on the 21st century attitude toward poverty, illustrated by the words of women forced to live every day with social policies they had no voice in developing. Topics include the struggles of daily life, crime, health care, education, employment, and a discussion of capitalism, inequality, greed, and moral obligation in a free society. In the unrestrained pursuit of wealth, this work shows that America has created a vast poverty problem, making the rich richer and forcing the poor into a forgotten class.
World hunger : 10 mythsFrom best-selling authors Frances Moore Lappé and Joseph Collins comes the 21st century's definitive book on world hunger. Driven by the question, "Why hunger despite an abundance of food?" Lappé and Collins refute the myths that prevent us from addressing the root causes of hunger across the globe.World Hunger: Ten Myths draws on extensive new research to offer fresh, often startling, insights about tough questions--from climate change and population growth to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the role of U.S. foreign aid, and more. Brimming with little-known but life-changing examples of solutions to hunger worldwide, this myth-busting book argues that sustainable agriculture can feed the world, that we can end nutritional deprivation affecting one-quarter of the world's people, and that most in the Global North have more in common with hungry people than they thought. For novices and scholars alike,World Hunger: Ten Myths will inspire a whole new generation of hunger-fighters.
World PovertyAlthough poverty has decreased over the past two centuries, about 40 percent of the world's population still lives on less than $2 per day. Approximately one in seven people - just under one billion - subsist on less than $1 per day. The most extreme cases of poverty surface in the least developed countries of the world, particularly in heavily populated South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as well as in rural areas within those regions. Although the United States is considered the richest country in the world, it has the highest poverty rate among industrialized nations. As prosperity has increased, so too has inequality, not only around the globe but also within countries.""World Poverty"", a new title in the ""Global Issues"" series, explores how to define, measure, and keep track of poverty; the causes of poverty; and counterstrategies. Detailed case studies examine the situations in the United States, India, Syria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, and the Ukraine, and investigate the strategies that these national governments have adopted to fight poverty.
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Don't Panic: How to End Poverty in 15 Years (59:47)Statistician Hans Rosling was one of the world’s most sought-after public speakers. In this film, timed to coincide with the launch of new development goals at the 2015 United Nations Summit, he offers real hope for an end to global poverty. Rosling explains how there are still one billion people around the world living in extreme poverty—but that number has halved since the UN last set development goals 15 years ago. Brought to life by the revolutionary holographic projection system Musion, this is a fascinating as-live studio show that charts where we’ve come from, where we are now, and where we’re heading when it comes to eradicating extreme poverty.
HBO Homeless: The Motel Kids of Orange County (01:00:05)Journalist/producer/filmmaker Alexandra Pelosi – who has built an award-winning reputation with her playful, politically charged HBO documentaries about George Bush, Ted Haggard and conservative America – shifts her focus to a serious social issue that has been exacerbated by the recent economic downturn: homelessness among children of the working poor. Shot over the course of the summer of 2009, Homeless: The Motel Kids of Orange County follows several Southern California children who have taken up residence at discounted motels within walking distance of Disneyland, spending their childhoods in limbo as their families struggle to survive in one of the wealthiest regions of America. As we see, though the community is trying to provide the children with adequate education and food, the day-to-day lives of motel kids are more often than not a numbing exercise in boredom, frustration, and ever-diminishing expectations. An HBO Production.
HBO Redemption (35:36)Redemption follows a cast of characters from the five boroughs of NYC as they scrape together a living – five cents at a time. Emmy®-winning filmmakers Jon Alpert and Matthew O’Neill followed several men and women over the course of a year, providing a poignant glimpse into the daily lives and struggles of those who scavenge the city’s garbage cans and recycling bins. The subjects’ previous occupations – short-order cooks, computer-sales executives, factory workers – all fell victim to an evaporation of jobs, as businesses and restaurants closed in the rocky years since the economic downturn. This 36-minute documentary short highlights the sense of community among the canners, many of whom have spent a decade working beside each other on the sidewalks, shunned by most New Yorkers and underserved by social services. But as more people turn to canning, the search to collect enough bottles and cans to survive grows more difficult. Despite the numbing work and long hours, they maintain their pride, insisting “It’s honorable work, no matter what people say.” As for the nontraditional livelihoods of their subjects, Alpert and O’Neill prove in this series of intimate portraits that one man’s trash is truly another’s treasure. An HBO Production.
Hunger in America (49:45)A powerful documentary tackling the hunger epidemic in America. 50 million Americans go to bed hungry every night. Hunger in America breaks down the clichéd ideas of who the hungry are today.
Poverty: The Fourth World (54:30)In an endless landscape of garbage, hundreds of people fight with crows over the edible contents of the trash. Hungry children stare from the door of a shack. A man labors under the weight of a bucket of water on a muddy street lined by low, crowded dwellings. What are the human stories behind these images of the Fourth World? Traveling to Nairobi, Guatemala City, and Manila, this documentary brings viewers inside the world’s shantytowns, exploring the reasons for their rapid expansion and revealing the personal struggles of those who live there. Original title: The Fourth World. (Portions with English subtitles, 54 minutes)
Poverty in America (6 Parts) SeriesCombining scholarly analysis with a human-centered approach, this six-part series looks at the causes and effects of economic hardship in the United States while suggesting ways for society to combat the cycle of poverty. Situational, multigenerational, elder, and child poverty are all addressed through conversations with those who know economic hardship firsthand, while immigration issues and homelessness are also examined in depth. Expert commentary comes from respected writers, socioeconomic scholars, and frontline activists, including Washington Post columnist David Broder, Alan Berube of the Brookings Institute, and Jessica Bartholow, a community food bank administrator. Original series title: The 51st State. 6-part series, 32–86 minutes each.
Why Poverty? (8 Parts) SeriesDespite advanced technology and better access to education, a billion people worldwide still live in poverty. This Peabody Award-winning eight-part series aims to raise awareness of this critical problem while exploring its causes and offering some possible solutions. Each program presents thought-provoking, often moving stories, but also raises difficult questions. Why is there still such a sharp divide between rich and poor? Can the less-well-off in America really claim to be in need? Will more education improve outlooks for people in the developing world? Supplemented by short bonus films, Why Poverty also includes an instructor’s guide designed to help deepen understanding of core issues and to spark classroom discussion. A viewable/printable instructor’s guide is available online. Portions with English subtitles, 8 part series, 58–65 minutes each.