Bodies, Politics and Transformations: John Donne's MetempsychosisSince the beginning of the twentieth century, critics have predominantly offered a negative estimate of John Donne’s Metempsychosis. In contrast, this study of Metempsychosis re-evaluates the poem as one of the most vital and energetic of Donne’s canon. SiobhÃ¡n Collins appraises Metempsychosis for its extraordinary openness to and its inventive portrayal of conflict within identity. She situates this ludic verse as a text alert to and imbued with the Elizabethan fascination with the processes and properties of metamorphosis. Contesting the pervasive view that the poem is incomplete, this study illustrates how Metempsychosis is thematically linked with Donne’s other writings through its concern with the relationship between body and soul, and with temporality and transformation. Collins uses this genre-defying verse as a springboard to contribute significantly to our understanding of early modern concerns over the nature and borders of human identity, and the notion of selfhood as mutable and in process. Drawing on and contributing to recent scholarly work on the history of the body and on sexuality in the early modern period, Collins argues that Metempsychosis reveals the oft-violent processes of change involved in the author’s personal life and in the intellectual, religious and political environment of his time. She places the poem’s somatic representations of plants, beasts and humans within the context of early modern discourses: natural philosophy, medical, political and religious. Collins offers a far-reaching exploration of how Metempsychosis articulates philosophical inquiries that are central to early modern notions of self-identity and moral accountability, such as: the human capacity for autonomy; the place of the human in the ’great chain of being’; the relationship between cognition and embodiment, memory and selfhood; and the concept of wonder as a distinctly human phenomenon.
Critical Insights: HamletHamlet may be the most influential play ever written. It is certainly one of the most famous and important. This volume offers diverse views of the work that many consider William Shakespeare's masterpiece. Essays provide close analyses of language, discussion of the play as a work (and film), and various contextual approaches, including essays on historical, cultural, social, philosophical, and gender contexts.
Critical Insights: Paradise LostParadise Lost is widely regarded as the greatest of all epic poems in English and as one of the most influential poems in the English language. This volume looks at Milton's epic from many different critical and theoretical perspectives and offers students and researchers multiple ways of engaging with a writer whom many critics consider the equal of William Shakespeare.
Elizabethan DramaPresents critical essays which discuss the writers and literary works of the Elizabethan era, and includes a chronology of the cultural, political, and literary events of the period.
English Literature from the Old English Period Through the RenaissanceRetaining the thrill and tone of oral storytelling as the written word became increasingly widespread was the charge of early English writing. Beginning in the Old English period and continuing through the Medieval and Renaissance periods, writers such as Geoffrey Chaucer and William Shakespeare began to elevate the place of literature in society. This volume details the evolution of early English literature and the enduring works that have withstood centuries of linguistic and cultural change.
John Donne : Comprehensive Research and Study Guide-- User's guide -- A comprehensive biography of the poet -- Detailed thematic analysis of each poem -- Extracts from major critical essays that discuss important aspects of each poem -- A complete bibliography of the writer's poetic works -- A list of critical works about the poet and his works -- An index of themes and ideas in the author's work
John Milton : The Self and the World"Winner of the James Holly Hanford Prize given by the Milton Society of America An exporation into the mind of John Milton that probes deeper than previous biographical studies, John Shawcross's award-winning text examines the psychological underpinnings of Milton's decision to become a poet, the homoerotic dimensions of his personality, and his relationships with his father and mother. John T. Shawcross is professor emeritus of English at the University of Kentucky and the author and editor of many books. See other books in the series Studies in the English Renaissance.
King LearKing Lear is one of Shakespeare's most performed and studied plays - seen as one of the most significant and universal tragedies of all time. This guide introduces the play's critical and performance history, including notable stage productions alongside TV, film and radio versions. It includes a keynote chapter outlining major areas of current research on the play and four new critical essays. Finally, a guide to critical, web-based and production-related resources and an annotated bibliography provide a basis for further individual research.
Love and Its Critics : From the Song of Songs to Shakespeare and Milton's EdenThis book is a history of love and the challenge love offers to the laws and customs of its times and places, as told through poetry from the Song of Songs to John Milton's Paradise Lost. It is also an account of the critical reception afforded to such literature, and the ways in which criticism has attempted to stifle this challenge. Bryson and Movsesian argue that the poetry they explore celebrates and reinvents the love the troubadour poets of the eleventh and twelfth centuries called fin'amor: love as an end in itself, mutual and freely chosen even in the face of social, religious, or political retribution. Neither eros nor agape, neither exclusively of the body, nor solely of the spirit, this love is a middle path. Alongside this tradition has grown a critical movement that employs a 'hermeneutics of suspicion', in Paul Ricoeur's phrase, to claim that passionate love poetry is not what it seems, and should be properly understood as worship of God, subordination to Empire, or an entanglement with the structures of language itself - in short, the very things it resists. The book engages with some of the seminal literature of the Western canon, including the Bible, the poetry of Ovid, and works by English authors such as William Shakespeare and John Donne, and with criticism that stretches from the earliest readings of the Song of Songs to contemporary academic literature. Lively and enjoyable in its style, it attempts to restore a sense of pleasure to the reading of poetry, and to puncture critical insistence that literature must be outwitted. It will be of value to professional, graduate, and advanced undergraduate scholars of literature, and to the educated general reader interested in treatments of love in poetry throughout history.
Of Philosophers and Kings : Political Philosophy in Shakespeare's Macbeth and King LearThis innovative work argues that Shakespeare was as great a philosopher as he was a poet, and that his greatness as a poet derived even more from his power as a thinker than from his genius for linguistic expression. Accordingly, Leon Craig's interpretation of the plays - focusing primarily on Macbeth and King Lear, but including extensive comments on Othello, The Winter's Tale, and Measure for Measure - are intended to demonstrate what can be gained from reading Shakespeare 'philosophically.' Shakespeare, Craig argues, had a persistent fascination with the relationship between politics and philosophy, and even more precisely, with the idea of a philosophical ruler. Macbeth and King Lear are given detailed exposition for the special light they cast on tensions between philosophy and politics, knowledge and power. They show how the pursuit of an adequate understanding of certain practical issues - transient yet recurring - necessarily leads to considerations that far transcend the particular circumstances in which these practical problems arise. Metaphysics, cosmology, and man's confrontation with nature, were made dramatically manifest by Shakespeare to challenge and promote philosophic activity among his audience and readers. Unconventional in its approach, but working within the tradition of such critics as Allan Bloom and Harry Jaffa, Craig's book makes a substantial contribution to understanding the general principles of Shakespearean drama.
Reading Shakespeare's Will : The Theology of Figure From Augustine to the SonnetsThe most influential treatments of Shakespeare's Sonnets have ignored the impact of theology on his poetics, examining instead the poet's "secular" emphasis on psychology and subjectivity. Reading Shakespeare's Will offers the first systematic account of the theology behind the poetry. Investigating the poetic stakes of Christianity's efforts to assimilate Jewish scripture, the book reads Shakespeare through the history of Christian allegory. To "read Shakespeare's will," Freinkel argues, is to read his bequest to and from a literary history saturated by religious doctrine. Freinkel thus challenges the common equation of subjectivity with secularity, and defines Shakespeare's poetic voice in theological rather than psychoanalytic terms. Tracing from Augustine to Luther the religious legacy that informs Shakespeare's work, Freinkel suggests that we cannot properly understand his poetry without recognizing it as a response to Luther's Reformation. Delving into the valences and repercussions of this response, Reading Shakespeare's Will charts the notion of a "theology of figure" that helped to shape the themes, tropes, and formal structures of Renaissance literature and thought.
Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Hobbes and LeviathanHobbes is one of the most important figures in the history of ideas and political thought and his book Leviathan is widely recognized as one of the greatest works of political philosophy. In this GuideBook Glen Newey offers a balanced guide to this key text that explores both its historical and philosophical aspects. The author introduces: the relevance of Hobbes' ideas to modern political thought the major interpretations of Leviathan Hobbes' life and the background of Leviathan The Routledge Philosophy GuideBook to Hobbes and Leviathan is the ideal introduction for students who wish to understand more about this important philosopher and this classic work of philosophy.
Screen Adaptations: Shakespeare's King LearThis close study of film adaptations of King Lear looks atseveral different versions (mainstream, art-house and cinematic`offshoots') and discusses: the literary text in its historicalcontext, key themes and dominant readings of the text, how the text isadapted for screen and how adaptations have changed our reading of theoriginal text. There are many references to the literary text and screenplays andthe book also features quotations from directors and critics. There isplenty of discursive material here to support student work on both filmand literature courses.
Shakespeare in Theory and PracticeIn these essays, collected here for the first time, renowned critic Catherine Belsey puts theory to work in order to register Shakespeare's powers of seduction, together with his moment in history. Teasing out the meanings of the narrative poems, as well as some of the more familiar plays, shedemonstrates the possibilities of an attention to textuality that also draws on the archive.A reading of the Sonnets, written specially for this book, analyses their intricate and ambivalent inscription of desire. Between them, these essays trace the progress of theory in the course of three decades, while a new introduction offers a narrative and analytical overview, from a participant'sperspective, of some of its key implications. Written with verve and conviction, this book shows how texts can offer access to the dissonances of the past when theory finds an outcome in practice.
The Student's Guide to ShakespeareAn introductory guide to studying Shakespeare This book is a 'one-stop-shop' for the busy undergraduate studying Shakespeare. Offering detailed guidance to the plays most often taught on undergraduate courses, the volume targets the topics tutors choose for essay questions and is organised to help students find the information they need quickly. Each text discussion contains sections on sources, characters, performance, themes, language, and critical history, helping students identify the different ways of approaching a text. The book's unique play-based structure and character-centre approach allows students to easily navigate the material. The flexibility of the design allows students to either read cover-to-cover, target a specific play, or explore elements of a narrative unit such as imagery or characterisation. The reader will gain quickly a full grasp of the kind of dramatist William Shakespeare was - and is. Key Features An introduction which gives an up-to-date 'state-of-play' of the academic, theatrical and cultural efforts inspired by Shakespeare's texts A discussion of critical approaches to the playwright's texts Succinct guides to Shakespeare's most-studied plays Discussion questions
The Word of a Prince: A Life of Elizabeth I from Contemporary DocumentsA new approach to historical biography - she has studied both the original sources and recent works of scholarship and has a thorough understanding of the period. SUNDAY TIMES Until Maria Perry began her exploration of Elizabeth's papers, this vivid raw material had only been partially studied. From it, a fresh portrait of Elizabeth emerges, one which is often more cohesive and less baffling than some offered by her biographers. The dangers and insecurities of her early life, her sense of divine protection, her formidable education, all stand out as crucial elements in the formation of her character; but behind the acquired circumspection lies a personality of great warmth and spirit. On the teasing questions of love, marriage and virginity, the letters and speeches offer oblique comment; it seems certain that Robert Dudley was her one true love, and that she felt his second marriage to Lettice Knollys as a bitter betrayal. MARIA PERRY is a graduate of Somerville College, Oxford, where she read history.
A Feminist Companion to ShakespeareThe question is not whether Shakespeare studies needs feminism, but whether feminism needs Shakespeare. This is the explicitly political approach taken in the dynamic and newly updated edition of A Feminist Companion to Shakespeare. Provides the definitive feminist statement on Shakespeare for the 21st century Updates address some of the newest theatrical andcreative engagements with Shakespeare, offering fresh insights into Shakespeare's plays and poems, and gender dynamics in early modern England Contributors come from across the feminist generations and from various stages in their careers to address what is new in the field in terms of historical and textual discovery Explores issues vital to feminist inquiry, including race, sexuality, the body, queer politics, social economies, religion, and capitalism In addition to highlighting changes, it draws attention to the strong continuities of scholarship in this field over the course of the history of feminist criticism of Shakespeare The previous edition was a recipient of a Choice Outstanding Academic Title award; this second edition maintains its coverage and range, and bringsthe scholarship right up to the present day
Ben Jonson: A LifeBen Jonson was the greatest of Shakespeare's contemporaries. In the century following his death he was seen by many as the finest of all English writers, living or dead. His fame rested not only on the numerous plays he had written for the theatre, but on his achievements over three decades asprincipal masque-writer to the early Stuart court, where he had worked in creative, and often stormy, collaboration with Inigo Jones. One of the most accomplished poets of the age, he had become - in fact if not in title - the first Poet Laureate in England. Jonson's life was full of drama. Serving in the Low Countries as a young man, he overcame a Spanish adversary in single combat in full view of both the armies. His early satirical play, The Isle of Dogs, landed him in prison, and brought all theatrical activity in London to a temporary - and verynearly to a permanent - standstill. He was "almost at the gallows" for killing a fellow actor after a quarrel, and converted to Catholicism while awaiting execution. He supped with the Gunpowder conspirators on the eve of their planned coup at Westminster. After satirizing the Scots in Eastward Ho!he was imprisoned again; and throughout his career was repeatedly interrogated about plays and poems thought to contain seditious or slanderous material. In his middle years, twenty stone in weight, he walked to Scotland and back, seemingly partly to fulfil a wager, and partly to see the land of hisforebears. He travelled in Europe as tutor to the mischievous son of Sir Walter Ralegh, who "caused him to be drunken and dead drunk" and wheeled provocatively through the streets of Paris. During his later years he presided over a sociable club in the Apollo Room in Fleet Street, mixed with themost learned scholars of his day, and viewed with keen interest the political, religious, and scientific controversies of the day. Ian Donaldson's new biography draws on freshly discovered writings by and about Ben Jonson, and locates his work within the social and intellectual contexts of his time. Jonson emerges from this study as a more complex and volatile character than his own self-declarations (and much modernscholarship) would allow, and as a writer whose work strikingly foresees - and at times pre-emptively satirizes - the modern age.
The Cambridge Companion to English Literature, 1500-1600This is the first comprehensive account of English Renaissance literature in the context of the culture which shaped it: the courts of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, the tumult of Catholic and Protestant alliances during the Reformation, the age of printing and of New World discovery. In this century courtly literature under Henry VIII moves toward a new, more personal poetry of sentiment, narrative and romance. The development of English prose is seen in the writing of More, Foxe and Hooker and in the evolution of satire and popular culture. Drama moves from the churches to the commercial playhouses with the plays of Kyd, Marlowe and the early careers of Shakespeare and Jonson. The Companion tackles all these subjects in fourteen newly-commissioned essays, written by experts for student readers. A detailed chronology of major literary achievements concludes with a list of authors and their dates.
The Cambridge Companion to English Poetry, Donne to MarvellEnglish poetry in the first half of the seventeenth century is an outstandingly rich and varied body of verse, which can be understood and appreciated more fully when set in its cultural and ideological context. This student Companion, consisting of fourteen new introductory essays by scholars of international standing, informs and illuminates the poetry by providing close reading of texts and an exploration of their background. There are individual studies of Donne, Jonson, Herrick, Herbert, Carew, Suckling, Lovelace, Milton, Crashaw, Vaughan and Marvell. More general essays describe the political and religious context of the poetry, explore its gender politics, explain the material circumstances of its production and circulation, trace its larger role in the development of genre and tradition, and relate it to contemporary rhetorical expectation. Overall the Companion provides an indispensable guide to the texts and contexts of early-seventeenth-century English poetry.
Christopher MarloweBrings together the best criticism on the most widely read poets, novelists, and playwrights -- Presents complex critical portraits of the most influential writers in the English-speaking world -- from the English medievalists to contemporary writers
Constructing Christopher MarloweFrom Greene's 'mad and scoffing poet' to Greenblatt's flaunter of his 'society's cherished orthodoxies', Marlowe's putative personality has licensed and informed disparate and often conflicting readings of his writings. This book illustrates and challenges the ways in which the writer has been constructed by the prejudices of readers, critics and directors. Taking nothing on trust, the contributors to this volume review what is known about Marlowe's life, the publication of his plays, conditions in Elizabethan theatre, and his reputation among his contemporaries and late twentieth-century critics. Their essays challenge some preconceptions about Marlowe by tackling major aspects of his dramaturgy, his use of magic, the homoeroticism of the plays, his female characters, twentieth-century performances of his plays, and the radical nature of his narrative poem Hero and Leander. Together they contribute to the critical effort to construct a fuller understanding of the poet and playwright.
Critical Essays on Shakespeare's HamletThe full range of literary traditions comes to life in the Twayne Critical Essays Series. Volume editors have carefully selected critical essays that represent the full spectrum of controversies, trends and methodologies relating to each author's work. Essays include writings from the author's native country and abroad, with interpretations from the time they were writing, through the present day. Each volume includes: -- An introduction providing the reader with a lucid overview of criticism from its beginnings -- illuminating controversies, evaluating approaches and sorting out the schools of thought -- The most influential reviews and the best reprinted scholarly essays -- A section devoted exclusively to reviews and reactions by the subject's contemporaries -- Original essays, new translations and revisions commissioned especially for the series -- Previously unpublished materials such as interviews, lost letters and manuscript fragments -- A bibliography of the subject's writings and interviews -- A name and subject index
Critical Insights: The Merchant of VeniceAlso available as an eBook.
The Merchant of Venice is one of William Shakespeare’s most often performed—but also most controversial—dramas. Technically a comedy, the play has long been regarded as having dark, even tragic, overtones. Its most memorable character, Shylock, is also its apparent villain. This volume explores the play from many different points of view while seeking to understand why this work has long aroused, and continues to arouse, such strong admiration, fascination, and disagreement. The Critical Insights Series distills the best of both classic and current literary criticism of the world’s most studies literature. Edited and written by some of academia’s most distinguished literary scholars, Critical Insights: The Merchant of Venice provides authoritative, in-depth scholarship that students and researchers will rely on for years.
Doctor Faustus: A Critical GuideDoctor Faustus, is Christopher Marlowe's most popular play and is often seen as one of the overwhelming triumphs of the English Renaissance. It has had a rich and varied critical history often arousing violent critical controversy. This guide offers students an introduction to its critical and performance history, surveying notable stage productions from its initial performance in 1594 to the present and including TV, audio and cinematic versions. It includes a keynote chapter outlining major areas of current research on the play and four new critical essays. Finally, a guide to critical, web-based and production-related resources and an annotated biography provide a basis for further individual research.
English Renaissance Literary CriticismThis is the first comprehensive collection of English Renaissance literary criticism to appear for nearly a century. Brian Vickers has brought together a wide-ranging selection of texts, some well-known (such as Sir Philip Sidney's Apology for Poetry, the most brilliant critical essay of thewhole Renaissance, here given complete), some little-known (Dudley North's account of Metaphysical poetry), and one being printed for the first time (John Ford's elegy on John Fletcher).
John Donne: The Reformed SoulMetamorphosing from scholar to buccaneer, from outcast to establishment figure, John Donne emerged as one of the greatest English poets, concentrating the paradoxes of his age within his own crises of desire and devotion. Following Donne from Plague-ridden streets to palaces, from the taverns on the Bankside to the pulpit of St. Paul's, John Stubbs's biography is a vivid portrait of an extraordinary writer and his country at a time of bewildering and cruel transformation.
The Oxford Book of SonnetsThe sonnet is the best-loved and most versatile of poetic forms, alive and well after over 450 years in English. It is still an automatic choice for the expression of intense but controlled feelings on both private and public subjects. Although it is most often associated with love poems, itis also used for devotional, philosophical, and comic purposes, and this anthology demonstrates the full range of its exhilarating possibilities. Beginning with Wyatt and ending in the present day, The Oxford Book of Sonnets juxtaposes old favourites with the less familiar: Shakespeare's marriage of true minds rubs shoulders with John Davies of Hereford's ABC of love, Keats's stout Cortez with Darley's Manrique. Women poets who revived thesonnet in the late eighteenth century are restored to prominence, and there are examples of the sonnet sequence as well as more unusual experimentation with form such as Sylvester's quadruple acrostic sonnets to his patron and eigh Hunt's iterating sonnet. Modern poets as diverse as Seamus Heaney,Carol Ann Duffy, and Simon Armitage show that there is no better way to dramatize experience than to write a sonnet.
Paradise LostFowler's edition is an authoritative guide to one of Milton's major pieces of work and provides an unusual amount of critical commentary, in such a way as to engage with current thought about the poem.
Renaissance Women WritersThis work takes as its subject the literary writings of English women working in the 80-year period from 1560 to 1640. It aims to provide both a comprehensive introduction to the range of women's writing (in print and in manuscript) in the period and an in-depth analysis of the work of several individual writers. The book opens with a sketch of the literary production in the Renaissance, and then goes on to address the ways in which women writers were able to counter these restraints and make a place for themselves in a male-dominated literary tradition.
William ShakespeareThis labour of love by 60 Shakespeare specialists covers all aspects of Shakespearean studies with one volume on his era, one on critical analysis of his work and one on his influence on 20th-century actors, writers, directors and musicians.
William Shakespeare: The Tragedies- A complex critical portrait of one of the most influential writers in the world
- Bibliographic information that directs readers to additional resources for further study
- A useful chronology of the writer's life
- An introductory essay by Harold Bloom.
Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became ShakespeareStephen Greenblatt, the charismatic Harvard professor who "knows more about Shakespeare than Ben Jonson or the Dark Lady did" (John Leonard, Harper's), has written a biography that enables us to see, hear, and feel how an acutely sensitive and talented boy, surrounded by the rich tapestry of Elizabethan life; full of drama and pageantry, and also cruelty and danger; could have become the world's greatest playwright. A young man from the provinces―a man without wealth, connections, or university education―moves to London. In a remarkably short time he becomes the greatest playwright not just of his age but of all time. His works appeal to urban sophisticates and first-time theatergoers; he turns politics into poetry; he recklessly mingles vulgar clowning and philosophical subtlety. How is such an achievement to be explained?
Featured Historical Context
Understanding what life was like when a work was written can help you understand the meaning of the work.
Defining Documents in World History: Renaissance & Early Modern Era (1308-1600)Defining Documents in World History: Renaissance & Early Modern Era explores vital documents from important world figures from the 15th and 16th centuries, including Thomas Aquinas, Giovanni Boccaccio, Marco Polo, and many more. This new addition to the Defining Documents series offers in-depth analysis of a broad range of historical documents and historic events that shaped these documents and the authors behind them. This text closely studies more than forty primary source documents to deliver a thorough examination of various peoples and events throughout history.
Defining Documents in World History: The 17th Century (1601-1700)Defining Documents in World History: The 17th Century profiles major documents from important figures and events of the 1600s, from the Scientific Revolution to the Exploration of the New World and more. This new two-volume set offers in-depth analysis of a broad range of historical documents and historic events that shaped the 17th century around the globe.
England in the Age of ShakespeareA social history of Renaissance England that raises the curtain on the cultural influences that inspired Shakespeare's plays. How did it feel to hear Macbeth's witches chant of "double, double toil and trouble" at a time when magic and witchcraft were as real as anything science had to offer? How were justice and forgiveness understood by the audience who first watched King Lear; how were love and romance viewed by those who first saw Romeo and Juliet? In England in the Age of Shakespeare, Jeremy Black takes readers on a tour of life in the streets, homes, farms, churches, and palaces of the Bard's era. Panning from play to audience and back again, Black shows how Shakespeare's plays would have been experienced and interpreted by those who paid to see them. From the dangers of travel to the indignities of everyday life in teeming London, Black explores the jokes, political and economic references, and small asides that Shakespeare's audiences would have recognized. These moments of recognition often reflected the audience's own experiences of what it was to, as Hamlet says, "grunt and sweat under a weary life." Black's clear and sweeping approach seeks to reclaim Shakespeare from the ivory tower and make the plays' histories more accessible to the public for whom the plays were always intended.
Great Events from History: Renaissance & Early Modern Era, 1454-1600The Renaissance & Early Modern Era's start date, 1454, was selected because it immediately follows the end of the Hundred Years? War and the Fall of Constantinople. The following century was marked by the height of the Renaissance in Europe, the rise of the Ottomans and the Wars of the Roses in Britain. Also, European colonization expanded into Africa, Asia and the Americas, Japan became unified and the rise of both indigenous and colonial trade empires in Africa became important. The set discusses major changes in world economics and demographics.
Voices of Shakespeare's EnglandVoices of Shakespeare's England offers students and public library patrons over 50 primary documents that illuminate the character, personalities, and events of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. * Includes over 50 primary document excerpts covering such issues as Elizabethan social and economic issues, Elizabethan church and state, the literature of the period, and Queen Elizabeth and the monarchy * A chronology lists important dates and events from the birth of Elizabeth (1533) to the death of Shakespeare (1616)
World Eras: The European Renaissance and ReformationWorld Eras
Norman J. Wilson, ed. Vol. 1: European Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1600. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 522 pp.
Examines major civilizations that have flourished from antiquity to modern times, with a global perspective and a strong emphasis on daily life and social history. This volume provides in-depth coverage of the European Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1600.