Cities and DisastersCities and Disasterspresents interdisciplinary and multinational perspectives on emergency management policy, economic development, and the various factors that affect the recovery process after natural disasters strike urban areas. The book has three central themes: policy, urbanity, and the interplay of events after disasters that affect the process of a community's return to normalcy. It covers differing approaches to emergency management policy at local, state, and federal levels, as well as economic development and redevelopment issues in urban areas. It also analyzes the issues of race and ethnicity involved in urban disaster response and recovery plans. The book looks at recent catastrophes such as Hurricane Katrina, Superstorm Sandy, and the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in East Japan. The case studies highlight the diverse challenges that communities face with regard to emergency planning and response. Given global climate change, rising sea levels, and the increasing impacts of disasters upon people, particularly in densely populated urban areas, there is a clear and urgent necessity to rethink issues involved in preparation methods for disasters and their aftermath. The analyses in Cities and Disasters help guide policymakers and policy actors in making decisions that strengthen communities for the future.
Disaster Recovery, Second EditionSince the publication of the first edition of Disaster Recovery, a number of important new studies and guides have become available. Now revised, updated, and expanded, this second edition meets the high standards for providing evidence-based best practices in a user-friendly textbook set by its predecessor. It is also more international in scope, incorporating case studies from around the world, including coverage of the Haiti earthquake of 2010, the Japanese tsunami of 2011, and overseas recovery practices. Highlights of the Second Edition: Takes a more international approach by examining developments and recovery efforts from recent global disasters New case examples added to the beginning of each chapter Deepened practical content drawn from lessons learned through scientific studies and best practices developed over time Integrates content on social vulnerability in each chapter Links recovery to best practices in mitigation Each chapter includes learning objectives and key terms at the beginning as well as end-of-chapter questions to reinforce and expand learning. Also, information, studies, and best practices related to socially vulnerable populations are integrated throughout the book. Disaster Recovery, Second Edition provides a necessary update to a landmark text in the field of recovery preparedness and execution. The updates and expansions in this edition make it the new standard in the field for learning how to design and implement the best possible recovery efforts, as well as how to evaluate efforts.
Disaster Relief: Organizations, Speed and Efficiency of Response and RolesFederal agencies provide a range of assistance to individual victims; state, territorial, and local governments; and non-governmental entities after major disasters, including certain terrorist attacks. Types of aid include, technical assistance, loans and loan guarantees, grants, temporary housing, access to counselling professionals, and medical assistance. This book identifies programs pertinent to the recovery process and provides brief descriptive information to help congressional offices determine which programs bear further consideration in the planning, organisation, or implementation of recovery operations.
Down in New Orleans : Reflections from a Drowned City"Post-Katrina New Orleans hasn't been an easy place to live, it hasn't been an easy place to be in love, it hasn't been an easy place to take care of yourself or see the bright side of things." So reflects Billy Sothern in this riveting and unforgettable insider's chronicle of the epic 2005 disaster and the year that followed. Sothern, a death penalty lawyer who with his wife, photographer Nikki Page, arrived in the Crescent City four years ahead of Katrina, delivers a haunting, personal, and quintessentially American story. Writing with an idealist's passion, a journalist's eye for detail, and a lawyer's attention to injustice, Sothern recounts their struggle to come to terms with the enormity of the apocalyptic scenario they managed to live through. He guides the reader on a journey through post-Katrina New Orleans and an array of indelible images: prisoners abandoned in their cells with waters rising, a longtime New Orleans resident of Middle Eastern descent unfairly imprisoned in the days following the hurricane, trailer-bound New Orleanians struggling to make ends meet but celebrating with abandon during Mardi Gras, Latino construction workers living in their trucks. As a lawyer-activist who has devoted his life to procuring justice for some of society's most disenfranchised citizens, Sothern offers a powerful vision of what Katrina has meant to New Orleans and what it still means to the nation at large.
Hurricane Ike Field InvestigationPrepared by the Hurricane Ike Field Assessment Team of the Coasts, Oceans, Ports, and Rivers Institute of ASCE. Hurricane Ike Field Investigations: A Report of Field Operations from October 3-6, 2008 describes the environmental and infrastructure impacts of Hurricane Ike on the upper Texas coast. Most important, the report identifies factors that appeared to provide protection from storm damage and presents some policy implications. After a general introduction to the area, its geology, historical storm events and rehabilitation, and coastal processes, the book describes Hurricane Ike, including water levels, storm surge measurements, and comparisons with other storms. It portrays the physical impacts of the storm, such as geomorphic changes, erosion rates, shoreline position, and impact of winds on engineered structures. Damage to and survival of shoreline structures--piers, seawalls, geotextile tubes, groins, and inlet jetties--are also discussed. Subsequent chapters address structural damage to buildings, lifelines and infrastructure, and marinas from wind, flooding, waves, and erosion. Finally, the book raises policy issues and summarizes lessons learned. Civil engineers engaged in projects related to coasts, oceans, ports, and rivers, especially in hurricane-prone areas; facilities managers in coastal areas; government officials from agencies that participate in coastal zone management or manage emergency preparedness will find the observations and conclusions of this book valuable.
Hurricane Katrina : Lessons for Army Planning and OperationsThe efforts undertaken by civilian and military organizations in response to Hurricane Katrina were historically unprecedented, but problems did arise in the military response that contributed to delays in accomplishing evacuations and relief operations across the storm-ravaged areas of Louisiana and Mississippi, particularly New Orleans. A number of steps can be taken to enhance future military disaster-response efforts: give the National Guard the federal mission to conduct homeland security activities; make each National Guard unit capable of rapid deployment; prepare governors to call up Guard units to state active duty for out-of-state emergencies; and design a regional approach in the National Guard through the creation of ten National Guard standing homeland security task forces. Designating National Guard and active-duty units for homeland security in the ArmyOCOs unit-readiness planning process also deserves consideration, as does an approach to command and control structure that prepares decision makers to quickly select from a set of predefined alternatives giving the lead to federal or state task forces depending on the characteristics of the emergency."
Lessons from Hurricane IkeIf Hurricane Ike had made landfall just fifty miles down the Texas coast, the devastation and death caused by what was already one of the most destructive hurricanes in US history would have quadrupled. Ike made everyone realize just how exposed and vulnerable the Houston-Galveston area is in the face of a major storm. What is done to address this vulnerability will shape the economic, social, and environmental landscape of the region for decades to come. In Lessons from Hurricane Ike, Philip Bedient and the research team at the Severe Storm Prediction, Education, and Evacuation from Disasters (SSPEED) Center at Rice University provide an overview of some of the research being done in the Houston-Galveston region in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike. The center was formed shortly after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Its research examines everything from surge and inland flooding to bridge infrastructure. Lessons from Hurricane Ike gathers the work of some of the premier researchers in the fields of hurricane prediction and impact, summarizing it in accessible language accompanied by abundant illustrations--not just graphs and charts, but dramatic photos and informative maps. Orienting readers to the history and basic meteorology of severe storms along the coast, the book then revisits the impact of Hurricane Ike and discusses what scientists and engineers are studying as they look at flooding, storm surges, communications, emergency response, evacuation planning, transportation issues, coastal resiliency, and the future sustainability of the nation's fourth largest metropolitan area.
Local Disaster ResilienceSince 2000, the Gulf Coast states - Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida - have experienced a series of hurricanes, multiple floods and severe storms, and one oil spill. These disasters have not only been numerous but also devastating. Response to and recovery from these unprecedented disasters has been fraught with missteps in management. In efforts to avoid similar failures in the future, government agencies and policy practitioners have looked to recast emergency management, and community resilience has emerged as a way for to better prevent, manage, and recover from these disasters. How is disaster resilience perceived by local government officials and translated into their disaster response and recovery efforts? Ashley D. Ross systematically explores and measures disaster resilience across the Gulf Coast to gain a better understanding of how resilience in concept is translated into disaster management practices, particularly on the local government level. In doing so, she presents disaster resilience theory to the Gulf Coast using existing data to create county-level baseline indicators of Gulf Coast disaster resilience and an original survey of county emergency managers and elected municipal officials in 60 counties and 120 municipalities across the Gulf States. The findings of the original survey measure the disaster resilience perceptions held by local government officials, which are examined to identify commonalities and differences across the set of cases. Additional analyses compare these perceptions to objective baseline indicators of disaster resilience to assess how perceptions align with resilience realities. Local Disaster Resiliencenot only fills a critical gap in the literature by applying existing theories and models to a region that has experienced the worst disasters the United States has faced in the past decade, but it can also be used as a tool to advance our knowledge of disasters in an interdisciplinary manner.
Multidisciplinary Assessment of Critical Facility Response to Natural Disasters : The Case of Hurricane KatrinaHow did the essential buildings in New Orleans perform both during and after Hurricane Katrina? With limited resources and restricted access, ASCE¿s Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI) sent a team to study five facilities in New Orleans, on December 5, 2005. Essential buildings are expected to be minimally damaged and remain operational during extreme events. How is it that, of the facilities inspected, only one performed successfully as a storm shelter during Hurricane Katrina? This report presents the findings of this investigation. It is organized into chapters addressing the performance of:
¿ Mechanical/electrical/plumbing (MEP)systems
¿ Building envelopes
¿ Structural systems
¿ Fire protection and life safety systems
¿ Communication systems
The final chapter of Multidisciplinary Assessment of Critical Facility Response to Natural Disasters: The Case of Hurricane Katrina presents a new approach to multi-disciplinary risk assessment. Building evaluations in the aftermath of catastrophic events should adopt and build upon the methodology in this book.
Race, Place, and Environmental Justice after Hurricane KatrinaOn August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall near New Orleans leaving death and destruction across the Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama Gulf Coast counties. The lethargic and inept emergency response that followed exposed institutional flaws, poor planning, and false assumptions that are built into the emergency response and homeland security plans and programs. Questions linger: What went wrong? Can it happen again? Is our government equipped to plan for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from natural and manmade disasters? Can the public trust government response to be fair? Does race matter? Racial disparities exist in disaster response, cleanup, rebuilding, reconstruction, and recovery. Race plays out in natural disaster survivors' ability to rebuild, replace infrastructure, obtain loans, and locate temporary and permanent housing. Generally, low-income and people of color disaster victims spend more time in temporary housing, shelters, trailers, mobile homes, and hotels--and are more vulnerable to permanent displacement. Some "temporary" homes have not proved to be that temporary. In exploring the geography of vulnerability, this book asks why some communities get left behind economically, spatially, and physically before and after disasters strike.
Second Line Rescue : Improvised Responses to Katrina and RitaSecond Line Rescue: Improvised Responses to Katrina and Rita chronicles the brave and creative acts through which Gulf Coast people rescued their neighbors during the chaotic aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Ordinary citizens joined in with whatever resources they had. Unlike many of the official responders, vernacular rescuers found ways around paralysis produced by a breakdown in communications and infrastructure. They were able to dispel unfounded fears produced by erroneous or questionable reporting. The essays, personal narratives, media reports, and field studies presented here all have to do with effective and often ingenious answers that emerged from the people themselves. Their solutions are remarkably different from the hamstrung government response, and their perspectives are a tonic to sensationalized media coverage. The first part of the collection deals with Gulf Coast rescuers from outside stricken communities: those who, safe in their own homes and neighborhoods, marshaled their resources to help their fellow citizens. It includes some analysis and scholarly approaches, but it also includes direct responses and first-hand field reports. The second part features the words of hurricane survivors displaced from New Orleans and other Gulf Coast communities to Houston, Texas. In many cases, the "victims" themselves were the first responders, rescuing family, friends, and strangers. All of the stories, whether from the "outside" or "inside" responders, reveal a shared history of close-knit community bonds and survival skills sharpened by hard times. This book is about what went right in the aftermath of Katrina and Rita--in spite of all that went so wrong.
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HBO When the Levees Broke, A Requiem in Four Acts SeriesOne year after Hurricane Katrina decimated New Orleans, director Spike Lee presents a four-hour, four-part chronicle recounting, through words and images, one of our country’s most profound natural disasters. In addition to revisiting the hours leading up to the arrival of Katrina, a Category 5 hurricane before it hit the coast of Louisiana, When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts tells the personal stories of those who lived to tell about it, at the same time exploring the underbelly of a nation where the divide along race and class lines has never been more pronounced. An HBO Production.
Hurricanes from Hell: The World's Worst Disasters Series (46:35)Sweeping in from the sea, these violent weather systems can travel thousands of miles, leaving a trail of death and destruction in their wake. Vast areas of the landscape are swamped with tidal surges of up to 20 feet high, deluged with torrential rain, and battered by ferocious winds, often exceeding 100 miles an hour. Buildings are flattened and trees uprooted, while boats, cars and other vehicles are thrown around like a child’s toys. Some of the world’s worst hurricanes have occurred in North America, Central America and the Caribbean. Given innocent-sounding names such as Hugo, Andrew or Mitch, they have wreaked chaos on an awesome scale, wiped out whole towns and villages, killed thousands of people and left many more homeless and destitute. But one hurricane in particular stands out: Hurricane Katrina. In August 2005, Katrina overwhelmed New Orleans in America’s Deep South, killing nearly 2000 people. It would be marked not only as one of the deadliest hurricanes on record, but also the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history.
National Geographic: True Faces of Hurricanes (51:00)As the effects of climate change and global warming figure more and more prominently in earth science, meteorology, and other disciplines, it becomes increasingly important to study hurricanes and other extreme weather formations. Of course, actually observing a lethal tropical storm is easier said than done. But when a series of devastating hurricanes hit Florida in 2004, an army of film crews stood in their way. In this film, the amazing footage they captured is compiled and analyzed by experts, who find startling information uncovered from inside the storms. A National Geographic Production.