The creation of stimuli, incentives, and working environments which enable people to perform to the best of their ability in pursuit of organizational success. Motivation is commonly viewed as the magic driver that enables managers to get others to achieve their targets. In the 20th century, there was a shift, at least in theory, away from motivation by dictation and discipline, exemplified by Frederick Winslow Taylor's scientific management, toward motivation by creating an appropriate corporate climate and addressing the needs of individual employees.
Although it is widely agreed to be one of the key management tasks, it has frequently been argued that one person cannot motivate others but can only create conditions for others to self-motivate. Many management theorists have provided insights into motivation. Elton Mayo's Hawthorne experiments identify some root causes of self-motivation, and Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs provides insight into personal behavior patterns. Other influential research has been conducted by Frederick Herzberg, who looked at job satisfaction, and Douglas McGregor whose Theory X and Theory Y suggest management styles that motivate and demotivate employees.