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Cite APA Style 7

APA style according to the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual from the American Psychological Association.

Basic Elements

The basic elements of an APA style citation are: 

  • Author or work
  • date published
  • title of work
  • source where reader can retrieve work

~ APA Basic Principles of Reference List Entries


APA prefers that DOIs be used whenever available. Here are some top tips for DOIs and URLs. You can find more details from APA

  •  If a DOI is available work, always include it even if you viewed a print version.
  • Do not include database information or the URL from the database. Include the DOI if available. If the DOI is not available, end your citation with the page range.
  • If an article is from an open access source and no DOI is available, include the URL if it is a durable link.
  • If your paper will be published online use live link for your DOIs and URLs. 
  • Do not include a period after the DOI or URL as it an break the link. 

~ APA DOIs and URLs

Missing Elements

Sometimes sources do not have all of the basic elements. When this happens you omit the missing element and continue with the next one. For instance, if no author is listed you start with the title. 

APA has a great chart to show you what to do in common scenarios.